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June 26: A Day to Support Victims of Torture

The following is a guest post by Connie Johnson, a senior legal research analyst at the Law Library of Congress.  Connie has posted several times before, including items on Water Rights on Star Island, Law Relating to Refugee Rights – Global Legal Collection Highlights, her summer vacation on Star Island, and World Health Day.

June 26 is set aside annually as the United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of TortureUnited Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, speaking in 2012, noted that this day is one on which “we express our solidarity with, and support for, the hundreds of thousands of victims of torture and their family members throughout the world who endure such suffering.”  He added that countries should not only prevent torture but also provide assistance to the victims.

International Law

Torture is banned under a number of international legal documents, including the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.  This pact was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1984, and became effective on June 26, 1987, twenty days after the twentieth country acceded to the convention.  According to a U.N. website on the status of ratifications, there are now 159 nations that are parties to the convention.  Among its provisions is the requirement spelled out in article 2 that parties “take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.”  The convention also states that “[n]o exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture” and that “[a]n order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture.”

Although it is not a binding agreement, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights commands wide international respect.  It states in article 5 that “[n]o one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”  Almost identical wording can be found in article 5 of the 1969 American Convention on Human Rights, article 3 of the 1970 European Convention on Human Rights, and article 5 of the 1981 African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Law Library Resources

Among the many works on the subject of torture in the Law Library’s collection are some that treat the topic in general and others that focus on a specific jurisdiction or on torture in connection with a particular focus, such as criminal justice or asylum.  Here are some recent, English-language titles:

Iceland – Global Legal Collection Highlights

The following is a guest post by Elin Hofverberg. Elin is a foreign law research consultant who covers Scandinavian countries at the Law Library of Congress. Elin has previously written for In Custodia Legis on diverse topics including What’s in an Icelandic (Legal) Name?, Glad Syttonde Mai! Celebration of the Bicentenary of the Norwegian Constitution, Happy National Sami […]

How Do You Say “Law” in…?

I work in an amazing place. We sometimes refer to it as a mini United Nations because we have staff from around the globe.  Our Global Legal Research Directorate provides a wealth of foreign, international, and comparative reports for Congress.  You can access our foreign law reference collection in the Global Legal Resource Room. There is also […]

On the Shelf: LGBT Pride Month

The following post is a joint effort by Liah Caravalho (keynote event text) and Jennifer Davis (collections text). In commemoration of the 1969 riots at the Stonewall Inn in New York City, June is Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Month in the United States. In 2000 President Clinton issued the first proclamation recognizing […]

The Consilia of Alessandro Nievo: On Jews and Usury in 15th Century Italy

In anticipation of the Library’s upcoming program, “La Città degli Ebrei/The City of the Jews: Segregated Space and the Admission of Strangers in the Jewish Ghetto of Venice,” – a conference held in collaboration with the Embassy of Italy and the Joseph and Rebecca Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Studies at the University of Maryland to […]

Jewish American Heritage Month Display

Each year Congress designates May as Jewish American Heritage Month, “honoring the contributions of Jewish Americans to the United States of America.” The Law Library’s website has a page dedicated to the history of this observance. So this year, the Collection Services Division has put together a display of items from our collection that showcases […]

Courtroom Sketches

Though courtroom drawings in the United States reportedly go back to the Salem Witch Trials, the idea of sketch artists in the courtroom has fluctuated in popularity within the judicial branch, at times tolerated, at other times banned, from the proceedings. Courtroom artists are in no way affiliated with the legal system. They are usually […]