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Legislation on Use of Water in Agriculture

The following is a guest post by my colleague Gustavo Guerra, senior foreign law Specialist for Mexico and other Spanish speaking countries in the Law Library’s Global Legal Research Center. Gustavo has previously blogged on Mexican Law – Global Legal Collection Highlights.

The Law Library of Congress recently published a report titled “Legislation on Use of Water in Agriculture.” The report summarizes legislation concerning the agricultural use of water in nineteen countries in Latin America, the Middle East, and Central Asia. The report includes individual country surveys for Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Iran,Iraq, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Mexico, Nicaragua, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkey, UzbekistanYemen, and Venezuela. Each survey provides a brief summary of the laws that govern the agricultural use of water, the government authorities in charge of the administration of water for agriculture, requirements for licenses to use water for this purpose, and relevant guidelines on conservation and quality.

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/mt0429.photos.197949p/

Downstream face of Como spillway outlet, footbridge and stop gate, looking west – Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. For illustration only.

In most of the surveyed countries, water is considered national property. Some countries, however, allow individuals to appropriate water. For example, Turkish law provides that water may be classified as either public water (which is available for public service and utilization under the government’s direction and possession), or private water (which is available for personal ownership as private property). Chile’s water is in the public domain, but users may enjoy proprietary rights over it and allocate it for different purposes, including agriculture.

In a number of surveyed countries water is used under licenses issued by water system administrators. Often, the types of licenses issued depend on the intended use of the water. For example, Afghanistan issues licenses for commercial and industrial purposes. Libya’s law limits the use of water to drinking, agriculture, and industrial activities. Government of Venezuela grants water concessions and assignments for different purposes, including hydroelectric generation and industrial, commercial, and agricultural activities.

Some of the country surveys provide information on intercountry disputes over transboundary water resources. Afghanistan has disputes over water with Pakistan and Iran. Both countries argue that Afghan dam projects on transboundary rivers will seriously affect their water supplies. Chile has ongoing disputes with Bolivia over two rivers that flow between these countries. Egypt has a dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of the “Renaissance Dam” that the latter is currently building: Egypt claims that this dam will put at risk its water supply by reducing the volume of water flowing into Lake Nasr. Turkey has had an ambitious plan to construct dams and hydroelectric power plants since 1975, and has been accused by other countries that share the Tigris-Euphrates Basin (including western Iran) of hoarding water.

Water, as we know, is a very important commodity. In some parts of the world, particularly where water is scarce, control and distribution of water may lead to international disputes. The multinational report on the regulation of water use in agriculture may shed some light on how foreign countries manage this very important natural resource. If you are interested in regulation of water in the United States we encourage you to review our previous In Custodia Legis blog by Margaret Wood titled “An Introduction to Water Law.”

Arbitration in Turkey and Istanbul as a New International Arbitration Center

The following is a guest post by Ozlem Aydin Sakrak. Ozlem is an attorney with the Office of the Legal Advisor of the Turkish Treasury. She recently completed her internship in the Law Library’s Global Legal Research Center and is about to return to Ankara. We extend our best wishes to her for a continued successful career in her home country.  […]

Tribal Governments and Violence Against Women Act — Pilot Project

The following is a guest post by Jennifer Davis, a supervisory collection specialist in our Collection Services Division.  March is the annual occasion to laud women’s landmark milestones and accomplishments for Women’s History Month.  A new pilot project began in March that is a signal triumph for women, particularly native women. It is also a […]

Costa Rican Law – Global Legal Collection Highlights

The following is a guest post by Norma C. Gutiérrez, senior foreign law specialist for Mexico and Central American countries in the Law Library’s Global Legal Research Directorate. It is part of our Global Legal Collection Highlights series that aims to inform readers about English-language materials in the Law Library’s collection. To date, the series […]

Crimean History, Status, and Referendum

The following is a guest post by Peter Roudik, Director of the Global Legal Research Center at the Law Library of Congress and a foreign law specialist covering Russia and former Soviet Union jurisdictions.  He has written several guest posts for In Custodia Legis, including “Regulating the Winter Olympics in Russia,” “Soviet Law and the Assassination […]

Japanese Family Law – Global Legal Collection Highlights

The following is a guest post by Sayuri Umeda, a senior foreign law specialist at the Law Library of Congress, who covers Japan and several other Asian jurisdictions.  This post is part of our Global Legal Collection Highlights series, which has included posts on the Law Library’s collections related to a wide range of countries and subjects. The […]

Perspectives on Egypt’s 2014 Constitution

The following is a guest post by George Sadek, Senior Legal Research Analyst at the Law Library of Congress. Last month, a new Egyptian Constitution was approved in a popular referendum held on January 14-15.  The Head of the Supreme National Electoral Commission, Chief Justice Nabil Saleeb, announced the results of the referendum on January […]

French Law – Global Legal Collection Highlights

The following is a guest post by Nicolas Boring, Foreign Law Specialist for France and French-speaking countries in the Law Library’s Global Legal Research Center.  Nicolas has previously written a post for In Custodia Legis on the history of subsoil rights in France titled Napoleon Bonaparte and Mining Rights in France.  As one might expect, […]

The Law Library Marks Humans Rights Day with a Discussion of Refugee Rights

This post was co-authored with Constance A. Johnson, a senior legal information analyst at the Law Library of Congress.  Connie is chair of the Law Library’s planning committee for Human Rights Day and has previously blogged about Law Relating to Refugee Rights – Global Legal Collection Highlights, Law and Longitude, Water Rights at Star Island, and our Guide on Legal […]