As today is September 16th, which is Mexico’s Independence, it seems fitting to highlight something Mexican. And there’s nothing quite as deeply Mexican as mescal. Many people refer to mescal (or mezcal) as the “tequila with the worm.” In fact, this notion of tequila with a worm is touched upon in the Pura Belpré Award winning children’s book, The Tequila Worm, by Viola Canales. But, it should be clear that mescal is not tequila.
What is Mezcal?
Tequila and mescal, both spirits of Mexico, share a common crop source—agave or, as we frequently call it in Mexico, maguey. The mythological origins of mescal, according to oral tradition, claim that it was a thunderbolt that struck an agave plant that resulted in the first roasting of this succulent food crop’s fleshy leaves. The etymology of the word “mezcal” comes from the náhuatl word mexcalli, which roughly translates to cooked agave. It is perhaps for that reason that this is a drink considered to be heaven sent. The Mescalero Apache Tribe gets its name from the practice of consuming this plant. And for those who are interested in edible gardens, according to the USDA, “Agaves have been a source of human food and beverage for at least 9,000 years.”
Naturally, the different types of mescal depend on the variety of agave, the region and climate of provenance, the form of distillation and the vessel in which it is allowed to settle. But perhaps the greater distinction between the tequila and mescal is that of mescal’s artisanal quality.
Legal issues concerning the Denomination of Origin of Mezcal?
On December 10, 2015, draft legislation was set out (PROY-NOM-199-SCFI-2015) for commentary, which has produced a dossier of feedback from subject matter experts and various stakeholders. The dilemma in a nutshell is that the draft statute aims to enforce Denomination of Origin legislation for mescal to ensure that only the spirits produced under certain specifications and certain geographic spaces be called mescal. All others, that meet the specifications but that are produced outside of the mezcal regions may only be referred to as “komil.” Many of the activists against this legislation claim that in giving these other mescals an illegitimate status and another name threatens to put smaller, artisanal producers of komil out of business. If you read the legislation, the specs are similar. But the Denomination of Origin (much like with tequila and champagne) ensures that the product that bears the label also enjoys a certain privilege.
For folks interested in learning more about the legal details of mescal and its legal composition, I recommend reading: NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-070-SCFI-1994, Alcoholic beverages-Mescal-Specifications; and Resolution by which the General Declaration for the Protection of the Mescal Denomination of Origin is amended, among a few others. The resolution provides for expanding the region of mescal producing spaces, those municipalities listed. The states that legally produce mescal under the name mezcal, are Durango, Guerrero, Guanajuato, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Zacatecas. Of course, within each state, there are further regional specification regulations.
Happy Hispanic Heritage Month! And ¡Feliz 16 de Septiembre!