Happy Birthday to Rosa Parks!

In honor of the 102nd birthday of civil rights legend Rosa Parks, the Library’s director of Educational Outreach, Lee Ann Potter, wrote the following post for the main Library of Congress blog about the many cards and letters students wrote for Ms. Parks over the years.

Rosa Parks. November 1956

Rosa Parks. November 1956

Born Rosa Louise McCauley on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama, the civil rights activist would have been 102 years old today.

It is impossible to imagine how many birthday wishes she received in her 92 years of life, but among the items in the Rosa Parks Collection that recently arrived at the Library of Congress on a 10-year loan from the Howard G. Buffett Foundation, there are hundreds of birthday messages–many from school children–sent over a span of nearly 20 years. From1986 until her passing in 2005, scores of kindergarteners to high school seniors from across the country used the occasion of her birthday to both wish her well and to thank her for the inspirational role she played in the civil rights movement.

Parks_Morgan_bday greetingTheir notes, drawings, songs, poems, and essays reflect varying degrees of knowledge about her refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus in December 1955. Some mention that it led to a year-long, city-wide boycott ending when the city of Montgomery lifted its law requiring segregation on public buses. Others, like a first grader from Wright Elementary School in Des Moines, Iowa, indicate awareness that she went to jail for her actions. In 2000, Morgan wrote, “Dear Mrs. Parks, I like you. I am sorry that you had to go to jail. Happy Birthday. Love, Morgan.”

Some of the students point to the bus boycott as the beginning of the modern civil rights movement and to Rosa Parks as its catalyst. Their pride in her is evident. For example, in 2000, a 5th grader named Ashley from Floyds Knobs Elementary School in Floyds Knobs, Indiana, signed a class card to Mrs. Parks with, “Way to fight for your rights! You go girl!” And a 1994 package from 7th graders in Ohio included dozens of hand drawn cards, including one that on the outside reads “Hey Brave Lady Who Wouldn’t Get Off of the Bus” and on the inside concludes with “Since it’s Your Birthday We’re Making a Fuss.”Parks Brave Lady scan0024

Quite a few student notes to Mrs. Parks explain that they had either read about her or learned about her actions from their teachers in school. Some suggest a real familiarity and friendliness; a few invite her to visit their school, others tell her to give them a call.

Virtually all of the cards and letters reflect genuine emotions–from appreciation to admiration; from interest to respect. And many describe how her actions encourage them to make the world better. For example, in the very first folder is a note from third grader ‘Mark’ from Norcross Elementary School in Norcross, Georgia, who wished her a happy birthday and announced, “One day I would like to c[h]ange the world like you did.”

Not only do the students tell Mrs. Parks to enjoy her birthday celebration, but a few tell her about their celebration of her special day. In 1990, a hand drawn card and a letter sent by Mrs. Murphy’s first grade class in Indiana describes the chocolate cake that the class had eaten–and a photograph of the students devouring it in Mrs. Parks’ honor is also included.

The bulk of the drawings in the collection are of buses, and most resemble the yellow school bus variety, certainly reflecting student experience. A few are accompanied by thoughtful, original poetry or song lyrics. For her 87th birthday, she received an anonymous card containing the following creatively spelled rhyme, “Happy Birthday to a spchle laddy [special lady]. Roses are red, Vi[o]lets are blue, civil rights are good for you.”

Importantly, among the children’s messages are a few cover letters from their teachers. While they describe class activities and summarize the contents of the students’ cards and letters, many explain what motivated them to introduce students to Rosa Parks, and share their personal sentiments. A hand written letter on flowery stationary, by Mrs. Yellin from New York in 1995, that accompanied class photos and drawings, explained, “My children were touched by your story. . . They also wanted to thank you for your strength and commitment. We all do.”

Yes, we do. Thank you, Mrs. Parks, and Happy Birthday!

Teachers can use this post in the classroom by asking students:

– What do you think the students who wrote these cards and letters believe is the most important thing about Rosa Parks?

– How do you think these cards and letters might have been different if they had been written during the peak years of the civil rights struggle?

– What civil rights leader or other public figure do you think students are sending notes like these to today? Why?




  1. Dona Helmer, elementary librarian
    February 4, 2015 at 1:44 pm

    Thank you so much for the wonderful, creative tips for teaching about Rosa Parks. I am going to combine primary sources, books and (NOW) writing birthday cards to celebrate this special life.

    I finished making a quilt about Mrs. Parks — it has pictures, quotes and things like her fingerprints, arrest record and other primary materials. I use the quilt to introduce the concept of “primary source” to my thrid graders.

    I am also thinking of stealing the tip and using the card writing lesson for Lincoln’s birthday later in the month.

    Once again, thanks for another great lesson.

  2. faye aurand
    February 4, 2015 at 3:47 pm

    I also love this idea. Although I retired last year, I still sub and have these ideas ready and with me in case I need something extra throughout my day or have a few extra minutes to share these primary source ideas.

  3. Tom Bober
    February 5, 2015 at 9:17 am

    A wonderful example of how these cards and letters, also primary sources in their own right, give us an insight into the cultural awareness of Rosa Park’s actions and her personal character decades after her decision on that bus in Montgomery. Thanks for sharing!

  4. Jeffrey Brady
    April 7, 2016 at 10:15 am

    I absolutely love the idea of examining the illustration and short letter. This is a perfect marriage of language arts (writing letters/correspondence) and primary source documents.

    In my lesson, I borrowed these ideas and added a few philosophical/counseling/emotional intelligence questions:

    • What is bravery? Who do you know that is truly brave? Why is that?
    • How can you be brave like Rosa Parks? How would you know when is a good time to stand up for what you know is right?

Add a Comment

This blog is governed by the general rules of respectful civil discourse. You are fully responsible for everything that you post. The content of all comments is released into the public domain unless clearly stated otherwise. The Library of Congress does not control the content posted. Nevertheless, the Library of Congress may monitor any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove content for any reason whatever, without consent. Gratuitous links to sites are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on the Library site. Read our Comment and Posting Policy.

Required fields are indicated with an * asterisk.