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Unpublished Twilight Sequel Sparks Interest in Copyright Deposits

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Recently, Twilight series author Stephenie Meyer talked about her unpublished sequel to the original Twilight story, Forever Dawn. Shortly thereafter, the Library began receiving questions through the Ask a Librarian portal about how to view the unpublished manuscript registered with the Copyright Office (TXu001163060), which is only possible through an on-site visit in Washington, DC.

So, what does that all mean? What is an unpublished copyright registration deposit, and why is it at the Library of Congress? When you register a work with the Copyright Office, you must determine if the work is published or unpublished, and you must submit a deposit copy or copies.

Under copyright law (Title 17, section 101), publication is the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership or by rental, lease, or lending. Offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of people for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display also constitutes publication.

From January 1, 1978, forward, copyright law automatically protects works from the moment of creation, whether they are published or unpublished. Why does it matter if the work is published? Publication is an important concept for works created or first published after January 1, 1978, for a number of reasons, which are outlined in the Compendium of U.S. Copyright Practices, chapter 1900.

So if it’s not published, and copyright protects a work automatically, why do you need to register it? Unpublished doesn’t necessarily mean the work isn’t out in the world. And if the work is infringed upon, registering the work with the Office gives you rights in a court of law. The Office outlines the benefits of registration in Circular 1: Copyright Basics and in our Frequently Asked Questions on You may be able to register your group of unpublished works together, as discussed in Circular 24: Group Registration of Unpublished Works and Circular 42: Copyright Registration of Photographs.

Boxes of deposits stored in the Copyright Office warehouse.
Many deposit copies are stored off-site in the Copyright Office warehouse.

When you register your work—published or unpublished—with the Copyright Office, you need to provide a copy or copies of the work for examination. Chapter 1500 of the Compendium discusses copyright deposits in depth. The Copyright Office then maintains the deposit copy, or the Library of Congress may add the copy to its collections. If the Copyright Office maintains a deposit, it is available for inspection on-site only through the Records Research and Certification Section. Inspection includes a $200 minimum fee to retrieve the deposit from storage. The Office does not allow visitors to make copies of deposits without the copyright owner’s permission unless the party is in prospective or actual litigation. If the Library acquires the deposit, its availability often depends on its copyright status. While works that have entered the public domain might be available on the Library of Congress’s website, works in the collection that are still under copyright protection are only available to view in person.

How are unpublished copyright deposits used? Often, deposits are requested for litigation. But, they can also be used for research at the Library. Director, performer, and musical theater historian Ben West found registrations for published and unpublished scripts and scores in the copyright records while conducting research for Show Time! Trilogy, a three-part documentary about the history of American musical theater from the mid-1800s through 1999. He then was able to visit the Library’s Music Division to view the deposits that the Library had acquired.

If you have additional questions about registering or viewing unpublished works, contact the Public Information Office online or at (202) 707-3000 or 1-877-476-0778 (toll-free).

Comments (5)

  1. Thank you for this information. I didn’t know that unpublished deposits could be viewed in person at the LoC; I thought only published deposits held this status.
    Best regards to all.

  2. I shared this with my writers group and writing coach. This is really helpful information. Thank you for bringing this to our attention. Go Librarians!! You Rock!

  3. I think it’s beyond absurd that unpublished copies can be viewed — by anyone — during the copyright period without permission from the rights holder.

    It’s counterintuitive. If you are to protect IP and to do so by registering it, such as a photograph or manuscript, anyone can just go read (or plagiarize) such IP.

    For published — sure — it’s already out there. But the Trademark office doesn’t require complete information of a particular information in a provisional patent to be out there (copyrighted items are complete pieces of IP, no matter the medium.)

    And the infringement penalties are both hard to prove and hard to enforce without heaps of legal teams. So, there’s no incentive to not go to the LOC and look up and copy with cell phones (hello 21st century)unpublished material.

    I think most common people would ASSUME that unpublished material is NOT accessible without permission or legal requirement.

    This should be changed ASAP.

  4. Can a sole author, individual sole copyright, rights holder have access to a list of persons who have requested and or engaged in the review of one’s unpublished work(s)?
    If so, what is the procedure to obtain such a list and or related fee? Is there a feature in the online e-co registration system for applying for such info? And if not, why isn’t there a listing of requests to review visible in one’s e-co account?
    Thank you for all the good work, US Copyright Office engages in.

    • For more information about viewing copyright records, visit the Research Services Overview page at Contact information is available there if you have more questions. Thanks!

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