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“A Central Thread of Our History”: African American Heritage Lasts Longer than a Month

“In the case of American Negroes, their labor founded the nation and was prime cause of the industrial revolution and the capitalist system of the modern world:  their slavery, revolt, escape, protest and emancipation is a central thread of our history: and without their music and laughter American art and literature would never have attained its present stature.  This is the reason we celebrate Negro History Week. It is not merely a matter of entertainment or information; it is part of our necessary spiritual equipment for making this country worth living in.”
W. E. B. Du Bois, Negro History Week, January 27, 1949

Dr. W. E. B. Dubois’ remarks, recorded for NBC decades ago (E), declares the central importance of the week-long celebration of African American culture, history and creativity that Dr. Carter G. Woodson initiated in 1926. It remains just as apt when applied to the present day commemorations of Black History Month or African American History Month. Federal institutions of cultural memory like the Library have long committed themselves to those pioneers’ visions by providing access to a wealth of unique documents, recordings, public events, teachers’ guides, and other resources focusing on the Black experience. The Story Map, Roots and Routes: Mapping African American Performances & Cultural Expressions  that I produced with American Folklife Center (AFC) colleagues Valda Morris, Melanie Zeck, and Thea Austen, is our contribution to this critical effort. Webcasts and recordings of the Homegrown concert series, which Austen coordinates, provide the foundation for this presentation, as they do for the Center’s 2021 Story Map observing Hispanic Heritage Month.

Mural in the Tunica, MS, visitor center and museum promotes the area’s rich blues history;  photo: Carol Highsmith

Without exerting undue authorial influence over individual interpretations and appreciation of the Story Map, it might be useful for audiences to understand the aims and scope of what we are trying to do through the presentation. At the outset I want to acknowledge the technical expertise and guidance of colleagues in the Geography and Maps division, which were crucial to the production of the Story Map. The division launched the Story Maps platform at the Library in 2018 and a range of innovative and eye-catching publications have been produced by other divisions since then and are available at this site. As well, the Prints and Photographs Division’s collections of historical photographs and reproductions of graphic materials and art works provide essential resources for this or any research publication.

Broadly speaking, the Library’s Story Map platform is a space in which archival collections are used to structure narratives about continuity and change, historical events, social movements, and local happenings as reflected in the realms of art, science, technology, literature and many other aspects of society and culture. For the AFC, it is a flexible way to promote our scope and mission which are to deepen public understanding of the sense of place, community history, familial connections, and deep-rooted cultural legacies that are embedded in grassroots performance genres.

For those of us staff members who have responsibilities for conducting research for the purpose of educational outreach, we can amplify the life experiences and unique histories of the artists who are documented in that research through Story Maps. The platform is a great entryway into the Library’s rich multimedia collections of audiovisual recordings, books, photographs, and graphic materials, and one of the pleasures of this approach is the opportunity to demonstrate the linkages among  collection items that are dispersed across several divisions. This sort of intertextual approach is, of course, a standard research methodology employed by many disciplinary scholars. I will note that the materials we can display in the online environment are limited to those items that have no copyright restrictions or ones that have been made available for educational uses.

Ben Payton, blues performer

Ben Payton, blues musician, 2011

One example of the linkages I refer to can be seen in the performance of the song “Opportunity” by the Mississippi blues guitarist, Ben Payton, during his 2011 Homegrown concert. The song indexes “The Great Migration,” the historic exodus of African Americans from the South to the North in the decades following WWI. The lyrics recall the experiences and yearnings of African American forebears for a better life in Chicago away from the Jim Crow South and echoes the sentiments expressed in a poem in Richard Wright’s memoir, Black Boy: a Record of Childhood and Youth (1945). In his writing, the celebrated author remembers his own journey to Chicago from the South during the 1920s. The accompanying photograph of Wright is by the legendary Gordon Parks, who photographed African American lives in the industrial North and the segregated South.

Song performance, image and poem are juxtaposed against two other FSA/OWI photographs, one of which depicts an unnamed sharecropper in Mississippi in the pre-WWII years, while the other captures a young woman, Annie Taber, working in an airplane manufacturing factory during the War. (A trove of such images, documented by Parks and others, is accessible in the Farm Securities Administration/Office of War Information collection in the Library’s Prints and Photographs division). Whether Annie Taber was one of the thousands of African Americans who migrated north seeking “opportunity” and the “warmth of other suns” is not known. Nonetheless, the image fits the broader themes evoked by Payton’s song and Wright’s poem.

The continuing hold The Great Migration and broader notions such as freedom and movement have on African American creative expression and artistic imagination play out in the subsequent section as well. “Mississippi” Fred McDowell’s classic blues, “When the Train Comes Along,” was recorded and photographed on the porch of his home in Como, Mississippi, by Alan Lomax in 1954; the song and the photograph are housed in the Center’s Alan Lomax collections and the online items are hosted by the Association for Cultural Equity, the collection’s donors. The song’s references to a train journey, departure, crossing over, and reunion are allusions to the promise of departing the earthly plane for heavenly salvation and eternal life – standard metaphors in spiritual songs.

Hubby Jenkins; Photo credit: Horatio Baltz

Hubby Jenkins, Brooklyn, NY, 2021

In a 2021 Homegrown from Home concert recorded in his backyard in Brooklyn, multi-instrumentalist Hubby Jenkins re-frames the song so that it stands for the actual earthbound journey that African Americans undertook during The Great Migration.

To return to Dr. Dubois’s rich imagery, this particular iteration of a Story Map selectively highlights but a few of the vast range of cultural expressions that generations of African Americans have threaded into the fabric of national history over centuries of struggle. In doing so, we emphasize the extent to which the concert events, field recordings and graphic materials we hold in our documentary collections encode a rich and complex cultural legacy and social history. Roots and Routes provides the public a visual, aural and textual pathway to understand how older expressive forms and shared generational memories resonate with and are reflected in contemporary African American cultural performances, directly and obliquely. We invite you to enjoy the journey and to find other paths through history at the Library of Congress.

Homegrown Plus: Samite

In the Homegrown Plus series, we present Homegrown concerts that also had accompanying oral history interviews, placing both videos together in an easy-to-find blog post. In 2021, we were very proud to present Samite, a singer, multi-instrumentalist, and songwriter who was born in Uganda and has lived in upstate New York since the 1980s. Samite left Uganda as a political refugee in 1982. He spent the following few years in Kenya where he studied African traditional musical instruments and rhythms. He mastered the kalimba (thumb piano), marimba (wooden xylophone), litungu (seven-stringed Kenyan lyre) and various flutes, both traditional and western, and learned both traditional melodies and original compositions. He played with the popular African Heritage Band and the Bacchus Club Jazz Band, and played frequently at the Mount Kenya Safari Club and other leading Kenyan venues. He emigrated to the United States in 1987, and continues to play traditional and original music, as well to compose for film scores. He has released albums on the Shanachie, Triloka, Xenophile, and Windham Hill labels, as has been featured on compilations from Putumayo, Ellipsis Arts, and Narada. In the concert you’ll hear songs and stories of Samite’s African roots. In the interview you’ll hear tales of the refugee camps, his time in Kenya, and his life in America, including the influence of Pete Seeger. Find both videos here in the blog!

Homegrown Plus: Hubby Jenkins

It’s time for another great Homegrown Plus blog! As you may know by now, in this series, we present Homegrown concerts that also had accompanying oral history interviews, placing both videos together in an easy-to-find blog post. (Find the whole series here!) We’re continuing the run with Hubby Jenkins, who is an old-time and blues musician living in New York. Hubby is a singer and multi-instrumentalist who plays guitars, banjos, mandolins, and bones. He has been a member of the Rhiannon Giddens Band, and before that the Grammy-winning Carolina Chocolate Drops. Please enjoy his videos in this blog post!

Homegrown Plus: Sean Ardoin

In the Homegrown Plus series, we present Homegrown concerts that also had accompanying interviews, placing both videos together in an easy-to-find blog post. We’re continuing the series with Sean Ardoin, an American Creole musician and singer. He is grandson of Louisiana Creole music patriarch Alphonse “Bois Sec” Ardoin, son of Creole accordionist and bandleader Lawrence Black Ardoin, and older brother of hip-hop zydeco accordionist Chris Ardoin, with whom he co-led the Zydeco supergroup Double Clutchin’. The family traces its musical lineage to Bois Sec’s older cousin and musical mentor, Amédé Ardoin, an early recording artist who is one of the most important figures in South Louisiana music. This blog has Sean’s concert and interview embedded, plus a bonus concert of his group Creole United, and a link to his video “What Do You See.”

Homegrown Plus: Reggie Harris

We’re continuing the Homegrown Plus series with Reggie Harris, who is a singer, songwriter, and storyteller on a mission to educate, entertain, and inspire. Many of us here at AFC have admired Reggie for years. In particular, his tours and recordings educating people about the Underground Railroad through song and story have made an important contribution to countless Americans’ understanding of African American history. We knew that Reggie included a lot of traditional songs in his repertoire, from labor songs to spirituals. So we thought it would be fun to ask Reggie to perform a set of mostly traditional songs, including a version of “Free at Last,” inspired by a version in the AFC archive…which made his concert also an example of an artist taking the Archive Challenge. Watch his concert and interview in this blog post!

Collection Connections: Hubby Jenkins Homegrown Concert, August 11

We’re excited for this week’s Homegrown concert from Hubby Jenkins, who will be playing old-time songs and spirituals that are the root of American folk, country, blues, and gospel. The concert premieres at noon on August 11 on our Facebook page. After that, the concert will be available permanently at his concert page, where you can also read more about Hubby. For now, I’ll just say that he’s an old-time and blues musician living in New York. He’s a singer and multi-instrumentalist who plays guitars, banjos, mandolins, and bones. He has been a member of the Rhiannon Giddens Band, and before that the Grammy-winning Carolina Chocolate Drops.  As a member of the Carolina Chocolate Drops, he played at the Library of Congress back in 2012. In this post, I’ll try to whet your appetites by talking about a few of the songs Hubby plays in the concert, and presenting related field recordings from our collections.

Langston Hughes on the Folklife Today Podcast

Season 3, Episode 8 of the Folklife Today Podcast is ready for listening! Find it at the link from this post to the Library’s website, or on Stitcher, iTunes, or your usual podcatcher. In this episode  John Fenn and I, along with guests Langston Collin Wilkins and Sophie Abramowitz, look at Langston Hughes as a “Hidden Folklorist.” As usual, I’ll present links to the relevant blog posts and audio selections in this post!

Hidden Folklorists and Hidden Spirituals on the Folklife Today Podcast

Our latest podcast looks at three “Hidden Folklorists” from Louisiana with special guest Joshua Clegg Caffery from the Center for Louisiana Studies at the University of Louisiana Lafayette. The Hidden Folklorists are Becky Elzy and Aberta Bradford, two spiritual singers who had been born in slavery, but who years later sang over a hundred spirituals for collectors; and E.A. McIlhenny, the head of the Tabasco Sauce company, who first collected their spirituals into a book. We recount details of how a microfilm of unique, unpublished manuscript spirituals by Bradford and Elzy came to be part of the American Folklife Center archive, and how Bradford and Elzy came to be recorded on audio discs for the Library of Congress by Alan Lomax in 1934, with the resulting recordings also coming to the AFC Archive. It’s an amusing story in which the 19-year-old Alan Lomax is forced to leave his father, the seasoned collector John A. Lomax “by the side of the road” and drive 40 miles with the 73 year old Bradford to try to find the 82 year old Elzy so they can sing together for the Library’s recording machine. The episode also presents several of their spirituals, and ends with the very moving recording of two women who had been born in slavery singing “Free at last, free at last, thank God almighty, got free at last!”

Freedom Summer 1964 – SNCC remembers

At the conclusion of his 2014 keynote address on guarantees enshrined in the Constitution but historically denied to African Americans, Bob Moses – freedom rights activist, educator, and MacArthur Genius award winner – summarized the state of the nation thus: “And we are a country that lurches. We lurch forward and backward, forward and backward. […]

Katherine Dunham’s Ethnographic Research in the Caribbean

Katherine Dunham is perhaps most famous for her influence on modern American dance with the introduction of African and Caribbean dance movement. That work began with ethnographic work in the Caribbean in 1936. Films made during her research have been put online by the Music Division of the Library of Congress in Selections from the […]