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“Bridgerton” and the Real Queen Charlotte

(This guest post is by Julie Miller, Historian in the Manuscript Division. Translation assistance provided by interns Keara Mickelson and Molly Smith, European Division)

 “Bridgerton,” the Netflix miniseries based on Julia Quinn’s romance novels and set in Britain’s Regency period, is an exercise in what-if. What if Queen Charlotte, consort to King George III, was Black and used her influence to grant titles and positions to other Black Britons? What if she was able to magically erase racism? Actor Golda Rosheuvel plays an imposing queen who livens her life at court by meddling in the lives of her subjects and is privately heartbroken about the King’s madness. Is her Queen Charlotte anything like the real one?

Many of the real Queen Charlotte’s letters, diaries, and household accounts are at the Royal Archives at Windsor Castle in England, and they have been digitized by the Georgian Papers Programme. The Library of Congress formed a partnership with the Georgian Papers Programme in 2016. In addition to these, the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress has microfilm containing letters in Charlotte’s old-fashioned, German-inflected French that she wrote to her brother, Charles, the Duke of Meckenburg-Strelitz, the small German principality where she was born in 1744. The originals of these letters are in the state archives at Schwerin, Germany.

For more than a century, the Library’s Foreign Copying Program has been sending representatives to archives around the world to locate and copy papers documenting American history. In 1930 the Manuscript Division, guided by an earlier Carnegie Institution project, microfilmed these letters in Germany. Because the focus of the project was American history, Library agents copied Charlotte’s letters from the years 1775-1785, a span that covered the American Revolution. They hoped to find the Queen’s perspective on the war, and they weren’t disappointed – but more on that later.

These archival sources, along with others both primary and secondary, reveal a Charlotte who was both like and unlike the Charlotte in Bridgerton. The marriage of Prince Harry to Meghan Markle led to speculation about whether or not Queen Charlotte had an African ancestor. Did she? The jury is still out. She did not, in any case, choose to identify with people of African descent or with the plight of the enslaved in Britain’s colonies. In 1788, as Britain’s abolitionist movement gained steam, Olaudah Equiano, a former slave who had been stolen as a child in Africa, pleaded with the Queen: “I supplicate your Majesty’s compassion for millions of my African countrymen, who groan under the lash of tyranny in the West Indies.” Her response? Silence.















Bridgerton’s Lady Danbury describes the marriage of the King and Queen as a love match. But, to paraphrase Tina Turner, love had nothing to do with the arranged marriage that brought the 17-year-old German princess across a stormy sea to marry the young King of England sight unseen. Over time, however, the marriage became a genuine partnership that produced 15 children, 13 of whom lived to adulthood. It was also durable – at least until it was threatened by the King’s madness. The novelist Fanny Burney, who served as Keeper of the Robes between 1786 and 1791, described in her journal the Queen’s distress as her husband’s madness threatened their marriage, similar to the reaction we see from the Netflix Queen.

Isaac Cruikshank. “The Gradual Abolition of the Slave Trade, or Leaving of Sugar by Degrees” 1792. Left to right: Princess, Queen Charlotte, King George III, Princess, Keeper of Robes.

In Charlotte’s Britain, abolitionists protested slavery by boycotting sugar, a product produced by the labor of slaves. Cruikshank uses the theme of the sugar boycott to poke fun at the royal family, who were not abolitionists. Queen Charlotte, grotesquely depicted, says: “Now my dear’s only an ickle bit, do not tink on de Negro girl dat Captain Kimber treated so cruelly ha, Madam Swelly & rum too.” “Madam Swelly” was the Queen’s keeper of the robes Juliana Schwellenberg. Cruikshank depicted Captain Kimber’s vicious torture of a slave in another cartoon.

Like Bridgerton’s Charlotte, the real Charlotte was not always content at court. In 1797 she complained to her husband that she was exhausted by the public assemblies she had to attend: “I found the Fatigue almost too much for me,” she wrote. Her letters to her brother were another outlet for these and other feelings. They also reveal the attachment she developed to her adopted country and the evolution of her own interests.

One of these was America’s revolution against Great Britain. Not surprisingly, the German-born Queen took an interest in the King’s use of German mercenary soldiers – Hessians – in America. Her letters to her brother Charles include her views on the recruitment of these soldiers and news about German generals. The Queen’s interest in the war also reflects her identification with Britain. In October, 1776 she sent her brother a copy of a newspaper containing “nos nouvelles si long attendue,” our long-awaited news, probably the capture of New York by General William Howe. Howe’s letters printed in the paper, she assured her brother, were the same as the ones she had seen and read herself. In 1778 she told Charles that she was possessed with the war, neither speaking, feeling, reading, or even dreaming about anything else. Despite her husband’s wish that she keep away from politics, she confided to her brother: “Je deviendray politique malgré moi”: I am becoming political despite myself.

Charlotte sent her brother books and family news, and gossiped with him about the aristocratic families they knew. While the Bridgerton Queen mentions her children only a few times, the real Queen was involved in the lives of her six daughters. After the death of his wife, Charlotte advised Charles on the upbringing of his daughters. In 1782 she sent him a “plan of instruction” that she had used with her girls, adding that they would soon be taking a course in electricity and pneumatics. Like the King, Charlotte was interested in the scientific discoveries that characterized the Enlightenment. She was also interested in women’s education.

Bridgerton entertains without pretending to be an accurate representation of history. Now that you’ve whetted your appetite, why not explore the real thing? Investigate the reading list, or contact Library of Congress reference staff through Ask a Librarian.

Read More About It:

Queen Charlotte’s papers at the Royal Archives.

Queen Charlotte’s letters to Charles, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1775-1788, microfilm, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Burney, Frances. “The Court Journals and Letters of Frances Burney.” Edited by Peter Sabor. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011-2019.

Equiano, Olaudah. “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African.” New York: W. Durell, 1791.

Fraser, Flora. “Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III.” New York: Knopf, 2005.

Hadlow, Janice. “A Royal Experiment: The Private Life of King George III.” New York: Henry Holt, 2014.

Hedley, Olwen. “Queen Charlotte.” London: John Murray, 1975.

Learned, Marion Dexter. “Guide to the Manuscript Materials Relating to American History in the German State Archives.” Washington DC: Carnegie Institution, 1912.

Marschner, Joanna, ed. “Enlightened Princesses: Caroline, Augusta, Charlotte and the Shaping of the Modern World.” New Haven: Yale Center for British Art; London: Historic Royal Palaces, 2017.

Orr, Clarissa Campbell. “Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.” (Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744-1818). Oxford University Press, 2009.

_______ ed. “Queenship in Britain, 1660-1837: Royal Patronage, Dynastic Culture, and Court Politics.” Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press, 2010.


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  1. Sherry L.
    January 29, 2021 at 11:09 am

    Thank you for this outstanding post that captures so well these fascinating historical stories!

  2. EHS
    February 12, 2021 at 11:33 am

    This is a great invitation to learn more about one of the most fraught eras in history. It reminds us of how connected all of these nations were in global politics as well as in their more personal connections. And as a side note, quite interesting to translate the handwritten letters which do not use the standard spelling most of us are used to! Expertly done!

  3. Rev P Pinkerton
    April 10, 2021 at 2:46 pm

    Why did Cruikshank depict Charlotte with a very un-European face and accent if he was not making fun of her Un-English look. And why does her ancestral blood line show she had a black ancestor.
    They purposely keep this unaddressed by the royal family historians.
    It is rather coincidental that she purchased Frogmore House which incidentally was where Prince Harry and the Duchess of Sussex lived also!!?

  4. Marque Parrish
    June 21, 2021 at 5:49 am

    What’s really funny to me is the fact that the Catholic Church have African literature and their history basically buried in vaults under their Church, what are they trying to hide and to go a step further everyone in Europe and United States are acting like there were never any African kings are Queens in Europe which is a lie and the truth about the matter is European and American history tries to portray only Caucasian people are white people whichever you prefer but you can only tell lies for so long, I have studied European and American history it’s all a lie everybody need to know the truth, when you hide history you don’t want the Generations that follow to be proud of their ancestors so you basically lie and Rob them of their history. Half of my family are teachers they all went to college and graduated I have uncles that have played professional baseball and professional sports and my father’s uncle was Bill Pickens the baddest cowboy who ever lived in the United States and he was black So when you say Queen Elizabeth’s great great great grandmother wasn’t of African descendant that’s just another lie!!!!I’m done.!!!!!!

  5. Stephen Thornton
    April 20, 2022 at 11:09 am

    In response to M Parrish the author does not state the queen had no African ancestry, merely that she did not support abolition or self identify as African.

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