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New Report Examines the Regulation of the Sale of Wild Animals and Their Meat in Markets Around the World

When a novel coronavirus was first reported as having been contracted by people in Wuhan, China, in  December 2019, there was a lot of discussion about the potential source of the virus. On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a statement saying that “[t]he evidence is highly suggestive that the outbreak is associated with exposures in one seafood market in Wuhan.” Subsequent reporting and studies involved detailed discussions of the sanitary conditions and types of animals sold at the particular market in Wuhan and in similar markets elsewhere, and people became familiar with what may have been a new term for many: “wet market.” This is a broad term that captures many different types of markets, but generally refers to markets, or parts of larger markets, where fresh food, including meat and possibly live animals, are sold and the floor is wet from the water or ice used for cleaning and for keeping produce cool.

Fresh fruit and vegetables for sale at the Central Market in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Photo by Kelly Buchanan, June/July 2008.

Of particular concern in the context of the novel coronavirus and other zoonoses (diseases that can spread from animals to humans) has been the sale of “wild” or “exotic” animals, either alive or the meat of such animals (sometimes called “bushmeat” or “game meat”), at wet markets or other types of traditional markets in different countries. A new report by research staff at the Law Library of CongressRegulation of Wild Animal Wet Markets, examines aspects of the regulation of such trade, including wildlife protection laws, hunting laws, food safety laws, and market management and sanitation laws. It covers 28 jurisdictions around the world, including countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South and Central America, and Europe.

The report demonstrates that there are the different cultural practices and regulatory approaches related to the trading and consumption of wild animal meat. In many of the jurisdictions surveyed, permit systems apply in the context of hunting and selling unprotected wildlife, with some countries also regulating the breeding and raising of wild animals for commercial purposes. There have also been bans on the sale and/or consumption of wild meat, at least on a temporary basis, in several countries in response to certain disease outbreaks.

Governments at the national and/or local level have set up regulatory and inspection systems for establishments that sell fresh food. Three countries covered in the report – China, Indonesia, and Thailand – have specific regulations that apply to wet markets. These include various requirements related to hygiene and sanitation. In some countries, including China and Egypt, certain markets were shut down for a period of time in response to the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak, while other countries, such as India and Pakistan, issued new guidance on health and preventative measures for markets.

Market sanitation, and particularly the regulation of the types of animals or meat that can be sold at such markets, as well as the enforcement of relevant requirements and restrictions, is likely to be an issue of ongoing discussion and concern. The Law Library’s report provides a snapshot of the situation in jurisdictions around the world as they continue to grapple with the current COVID-19 pandemic. The Law Library has published multiple other resources regarding legal aspects of countries’ responses to the pandemic, including on this blog and in the Global Legal Monitor. You can sign up to receive alerts when new blog posts, articles, and reports are published by clicking the “Subscribe” button at the top of this page or on our website at law.gov.

Join Us on September 24 for a Foreign and Comparative Law Webinar on “Worlds Apart: Legal Responses to COVID-19 in New Zealand and Sweden”

Please join us for the Law Library’s upcoming webinar: “Worlds Apart: Legal Responses to COVID-19 in New Zealand and Sweden” at 2 p.m. EDT on Thursday, September 24, 2020. This webinar is the latest installment in the Law Library’s series of webinars focused on foreign and comparative law. In this webinar, we will discuss and compare the overarching policies and approaches of the two countries, outline the relevant laws, and a look at how the two governments have communicated with the public about the pandemic and the approaches taken.

Digital Collection of the Gazette of Eritrean Laws Goes Live

Eritrea is one of the most difficult African jurisdictions for which to conduct legal research. This is primarily because the country’s laws are not easily accessible. While a few proclamations and notices have been uploaded to various websites piecemeal, there is not a central location where researchers can access the laws of the country for […]

“Justice Dogs” in Germany

Are you looking for a legitimate reason to browse adorable dog pictures at work? Well, this blog post might just be what you were looking for! In December 2019, the Golden Retriever “Watson” started his work as a “justice dog” in the German state of Baden-Württemberg as part of a pilot project. Justice dogs are trained […]

Join Us on August 27 for a Foreign and Comparative Law Webinar on “Hot Topics in Global AI Regulation”

This post was co-authored by Jenny Gesley and Nicolas Boring, Foreign Law Specialists. Artificial intelligence (AI) plays an increasing role in our everyday life, from speech recognition to medical diagnostics. It should therefore be no surprise that, in several countries, AI has started to play a role in the relationship between governments and their citizens. […]

Past Bilateral Border Agreements between China and India and the June 15th Clash

The following is a guest post by Tariq Ahmad, a foreign law specialist in the Global Legal Research Directorate of the Law Library of Congress, to which I contributed. Tariq has previously authored posts on Islamic Law in Pakistan – Global Legal Collection Highlights, the Law Library’s 2013 Panel Discussion on Islamic Law, Sedition Law in India, and FALQ posts on Proposals to Reform Pakistan’s […]

“Bastille Day” Is About More Than the Bastille

This post is authored by Nicolas Boring, a foreign law specialist covering French-speaking jurisdictions at the Law Library of Congress. Nicolas has previously blogged about a Report on Right of Huguenots to French Citizenship and The Library of the French National Assembly – Pic of the Week, among others. July 14 is France’s national holiday. Often referred to as […]