The following is a guest post by Elin Hofverberg, a Foreign Law Consultant for the Nordic countries. Elin is a prolific In Custodia Legis blogger and has blogged on an extensive array of legal topics, including Swedish Law – Global Legal Collection Highlights, FALQs: the Swedish Budget Process, 60 Years of Lego Building Blocks and Danish Patent Law; Finland: 100 Years of Independence – Global Legal Collection Highlights, Alfred Nobel’s Will: A Legal Document that Might Have Changed the World and a Man’s Legacy, and many more.
Despite being celebrated as a must-have in the Swedish fika culture, the cinnamon bun pastry did not become commonplace until the 1920s (after World War I), when its ingredients (flour, butter, sugar, yeast, and cinnamon) went from being on a list of rationed goods (ransoneringslista) to becoming more affordable. The real heyday of cinnamon buns appears to have come even later, in the 1950s (also known as the “happy fifties”(glada femtiotalet in Sweden). The cinnamon bun became a loved pastry, perhaps the most loved one, and in 1999, the Home Baking Council (Hembakningsrådet), which was celebrating its 40-year anniversary, announced that October 4 (celebrated as children’s day that year) would be Kanelbullensdag from now on. It has been celebrated passionately ever since.
Cinnamon Bun Day is marked by increases in cinnamon bun sales and homemade varieties. Some figures even suggest that Swedes eat as many as 300+ cinnamon buns a year. A recent study by the SCB (Statistics Sweden)—the Cinnamon Bun Index—found that the price of cinnamon buns in Swedish cafes has increased at a higher rate than the price of homemade ones– with a price increase of approximately 74% since 1990. The same survey also found that the costs of making homemade cinnamon buns have only risen by 54% in the same time period. Meanwhile, a cinnamon bun purchased in the grocery store is 21% more expensive than it was in 1990.
EU Regulation of Coumarin
The legacy of the Swedish cinnamon bun could have been derailed in 2011, when the European Union (EU) Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods entered into force. The regulation limited the amount of coumarin that could be included in food products. Coumarin is a component of cinnamon – the namesake ingredient in cinnamon buns. Sweden was quick to act, and the Swedish National Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) announced that cinnamon buns fell under the “traditional and/or seasonal bakery ware containing a reference to cinnamon in the labelling” exception of the EU Regulation No. 1334/2008. (Art.3(c) in conjunction with annex II.) Traditional and/or seasonal baked goods are exempt from the 15mg/kg (6.8 mg/lbs.) limit and instead subject to a 50mg/kg (22.7mg/lbs) limit. Denmark on the other hand initially interpreted the text differently and found that its cinnamon bun equivalents (kanelsnegle, kanelstænger, and kanelgifler) could not rely on the exemption. Public outcry ensued, and the Danish Food Authority later reinterpreted the provision and determined that, similar to Sweden, their cinnamon buns also fell under the 50mg/kg exception for traditional baked goods.
This may not mean that cinnamon buns are here to stay. In the event of a war, Sweden has legislation in place, the Law on Rationing (Lag om ransonering (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1978:268), which allows the Swedish government to declare that rationing provisions from the same law should start to apply. Although it can only be activated when there is a risk of war or if there is a shortage or a risk of shortage of importance for the Swedish Defense or the population’s food supply, luxuries such as the cinnamon bun (and its costly ingredients) could be the first to go.
Library of Congress Recipes
If you love baking like the Law Library’s own Margaret Wood and are brave enough to try baking a cinnamon bun yourself, the Library of Congress has many recipes that you may enjoy! Below are examples from the classic Swedish cook book “Sju sorters kakor” (Seven types of Cookies) in Swedish and in an English translation, as well as from other cookbooks honoring the cinnamon bun in their titles.
- Sju sorters kakor; ca 500 läckra recept på goda kakor av alla slag, de flesta uttagna ur ICA-kurirens kakpristävling (1959, in Swedish).
- Nya sju sorters kakor. 300 recept på vetebröd, mjuka kakor, småkakor, tårtor och bakelser. Sammanställda av hushåll-slärarna på Ica provkök (1966, in Swedish).
- Sju sorters kakor. Swedish Cakes and Cookies (English translation, 2008).
- Marion Yadon. Red Rocks & Cinnamon Rolls : A Cookbook from Canyon Villa Bed & Breakfast (1994).
- Bobbie Hinman. Burgers ‘n Fries ‘n Cinnamon Buns: Low-Fat, Meatless Versions of Fast Food Favorites (1993).
If you are more interested in Sweden during the post-World War I era, you might enjoy
- Neutrality in Twentieth-Century Europe : Intersections of Science, Culture, and Politics after the First World War (Rebecka Lettevall, Geert Somsen, and Sven Widmalm, eds., 2012).
Come visit us today! The Library of Congress collections can satisfy your sweet tooth as well as your thirst for knowledge at the same time!