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World War I: The Man Who Killed Jim Crow

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(The following is a guest post from Ryan Reft, modern U.S. historian in the Manuscript Division.)

“No son has ever left home whose family had greater pride in him than we have in you,” wrote prominent Washington D.C. lawyer and African American civic leader William LePre Houston to his son, Charles Hamilton Houston in September of 1918. Charles soon sailed for Europe as a Second Lieutenant in the field artillery First Lieutenant in the 368th Infantry regiment of the 92nd division, one of two segregated combat divisions in the United States Army, the other being the 93rd.

Charles H. Houston. Prints and Photographs Division.
Charles H. Houston. Prints and Photographs Division.

Charles Houston’s dog tags, coat buttons and bullet from his firearm, along with several folders of material related to his World War One service – including diaries spanning from 1918 to 1919 – can be found in the William L. Houston Family papers. The collection reflects the pride, volunteerism and struggles of African-American service personnel and their families during the “Great War.”

Of the 3.7 million soldiers that entered the U.S. military during WWI, 400,000 were black. Many had entered at the behest of African American leaders like W.E.B. Dubois who believed military service would prove that blacks deserved full citizenship. However, racial prejudice conspired to both draft African Americans at a higher percentage than their white counterparts and relegate them to important, but less publicly celebrated roles as camp laborers or as stevedores in European ports. Roughly 42,000 would see actual combat; all under either white American or French officers. Most white American soldiers and officers refused to treat their black peers as equals.

Dog tag belonging to 1st Lieutenant Charles Hamilton Houston, circa 1918. Manuscript Division.
Dog tag belonging to 1st Lieutenant Charles Hamilton Houston, circa 1918. Manuscript Division.

Stationed in France, Houston would find French racial ideas somewhat more liberal than those of Jim Crow America. African-American culture, notably music and dance, proved widely popular. “[A]ll Paris taken away with ‘Jazz-band’ and our style of dancing,” he wrote in a January 1919 diary entry. “Colored boys all the go.”

Bullet belonging to 1st Lieutenant Charles Hamilton Houston, circa 1918. Manuscript Division.
Bullet belonging to 1st Lieutenant Charles Hamilton Houston, circa 1918. Manuscript Division.

Yet, Houston’s experience also sharpened his racial consciousness as the discriminatory policies of the American Expeditionary Forces and racist attitudes of white soldiers heightened his desire for equality. Upon his return to the U.S., Houston embarked on a pioneering law career in civil rights, earning a law degree from Harvard and arguing in front of the Supreme Court as counsel for the NAACP. By slowly dismantling segregation, Houston earned the title “The Man Who Killed Jim Crow.” From his perch as Dean of Howard Law School, he mentored a cadre of civil rights lawyers, most famously Thurgood Marshall.

Houston’s WWI service left an enduring mark. Throughout his life he appealed for an integrated military and defended the talents of his fellow black soldiers to those who would denigrate them: “Our best men, or to put it in figures, our first ten men I would put up against any other ten men from any battery in the camp on theory, practice or what not.”

World War I Centennial, 2017-2018: With the most comprehensive collection of multi-format World War I holdings in the nation, the Library of Congress is a unique resource for primary source materials, education plans, public programs and on-site visitor experiences about The Great War including exhibits, symposia and book talks.

Comments (7)

  1. For anyone wondering, the dog tag displayed is from Charles Hamilton Houston’s training at the Officer’s Training Camp in Iowa, the first African American officer’s camp in U.S. history. He was a First Lieutenant in the 368th Infantry However, Houston had wanted to be in the artillery and pressed for a transfer after graduating from OTC and got it to the 351st where he was trained as a Second Lieutenant in field artillery. The 368th and 351st were incorporated into the 92nd Division.

  2. I’m asking within my propper ignorance:Was really Mr.Charles Hamilton Houston one african-american of first generation?Many thanks for your response.

  3. Our new WWl exhibit, WILLAPA SEAPORT MUSEUM features black soldiers and their contribution toward winning the war.

  4. thank you for killing jimcrow

  5. Hi hope all is well, I live in England and 59 years old ,I found a USA round aluminium dog tag in Winchester England ,his name is EARL GRAY I was wondering if he could have been a African American soldier . a could you please help by telling me how I could find out about the soldier and it would be great to find if he has family members still alive, all the best tom

  6. Howdy. I’m writing a paper about him in my Black Politics in America class. Is there any other information regarding Charles Houston’s military service?

    • Hi,

      The best way to research this is to check with the Manuscript Division, which holds his papers. You can do so online, at

      This will put you in touch with a reference librarian in the reading room, just as if you walked into the library!

      Good luck,

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