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Cartography of Contagion

Carney, L. H., M.D. Carney's series of medical charts showing location in the United States of. New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co, 1874 Geography and Map Division. Showing Distribution of malaria in green.

Carney, L. H., M.D. Carney’s series of medical charts showing location in the United States of…( New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co, 1874).  Geography and Map Division. This is one of six maps: a base map and maps depicting distribution of typhoid, pneumonia, rheumatism, tuberculosis, and malarial infections.

Originally published in 1874, these maps of the eastern half of the United States were designed to show the distribution of diseases including typhoid, malaria, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and rheumatism that affected the US population. The maps were published by L.H. Carney, M.D., but we find no biographical data on the author.  Medical data (in the form of statistics) is not shown and the maps are simply shaded to show the severity of infection.

The map shown above, interestingly enough, shows the distribution of malarial infections in 1874 in the eastern United States with the exception of  the state of West Virginia.  For some unknown reason the Mountain State was virtually unaffected in 1874 in the same manner as it was in the early stages of the current 2020 pandemic. Is it an accident of geography? Topography? Or was the area so sparsely inhabited that there were fewer reported infections than in other locations?

Carney, L. H., M.D. Carney's series of medical charts showing location in the United States of. New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co, 1874. Geography and Map Division

Carney, L. H., M.D. Carney’s series of medical charts showing location in the United States of. ..(New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co, 1874.) Geography and Map Division.  This map focuses on the distribution of tuberculosis.

Conversely, the map above showing the distribution of phthisis, also known as tuberculosis (red shading), focuses on major population centers rather than the map showing malarial infections (green shading) along major river systems. Even though medical statistics are not provided, one can infer by comparing the two maps that 19th century tuberculosis cases may have been accelerated due to close living conditions in major population centers.

At roughly the same time the above maps were being prepared by commercial publishers the United States Government was producing, in association with “eminent men of science”, statistical atlases from information gathered during the 1870, 1880, and 1890 Census. Each atlas contains statistics, displayed in a graphic form on a map, denoting the approximate  number and type of mortal diseases confronting the United States in the late 19th century.

The image below, for example, is from the 1870 Statistical atlas of the United States and provides a graphic illustration of the ratio between deaths from malarial diseases as opposed to all other causes of deaths. The darker the shading translates to a higher number of deaths.

United States Census Office. 9Th Census, 1870, and Francis Amasa Walker. Statistical atlas of the United States based on the results of the ninth censuswith contributions from many eminent men of science and several departments of the government. [New York J. Bien, lith, 1874] Plate showing deaths from malarial diseases in 1870.

United States Census Office. Ninth Census, 1870, and Francis Amasa Walker. Statistical atlas of the United States based on the results of the ninth censuswith contributions from many eminent men of science and several departments of the government. [New York J. Bien, lith, 1874] Plate showing deaths from malarial diseases in 1870.

In 1978 the United States issued its last published National Atlas representing demographics and statistics of the nation in the mid 20th century. According to the 1970 Census the number of regular and specialized care hospital beds differed greatly by state. The two atlas plates shown below provide information on the number of hospital beds (general, specialized, and federal) as well as the number of medical professionals in each state.

Geological Survey, U.S, and Arch C Gerlach. The national atlas of the United States of America. Washington, 1970. Plate shows distribution of hospital beds and medical services by state in 1970

Geological Survey, U.S, and Arch C Gerlach. The national atlas of the United States of America. (Washington, 1970.)  Plate shows distribution of hospital beds and medical services by state in 1970

 

Geological Survey, U.S, and Arch C Gerlach. The national atlas of the United States of America. Washington, 1970. Plate show mortality and distribution of medical professionals by state.

Geological Survey, U.S, and Arch C Gerlach. The national atlas of the United States of America. (Washington, 1970.)  Plate show mortality and distribution of medical professionals by state.

Finally, the maps provided above are intended as a way to use the historical collections of the Library of Congress to help understand the tragic situations that we now face.  There will, undoubtedly, be significant  statistical information published in the form of maps and digital data forthcoming to help us understand the future spread of disease.