{ subscribe_url:'/share/sites/library-of-congress-blogs/nls-music-notes.php' }

American Composers and Musicians from A to Z: G (Part 1 – Gershwin, George)

This week, we will take a look at American composer George Gershwin.

George Gershwin was one of the first American composers to use both popular and classical idioms. Years before his most famous compositions were penned, he worked on Tin Pan Alley as a song plugger—that is, someone who was hired to play and promote new music in department stores as a form of advertisement before quality recording-on-demand was available. When he was 18, he began writing, arranging, and recording songs for the Aeolian Company, which manufactured player pianos and the piano rolls they used. During this time, he was also writing his own music, and finally had a big hit with “Swanee,” recorded by Al Jolson in 1920.

Just a few years later, at the age of 26, Gershwin wrote Rhapsody in Blue for orchestra and piano, premiered by Paul Whiteman’s band. This piece was well received, and is still one of the most-performed pieces composed by Gershwin. After this, Gershwin spent some time in Paris, hoping to study with both Nadia Boulanger and Maurice Ravel; however, both turned him down. While in Paris though, he composed An American in Paris, which was premiered at Carnegie Hall in 1928.

George Gershwin, 1898-1937, three-quarters length portrait, standing, facing right. Photograph, no date.

George Gershwin, 1898-1937, three-quarters length portrait, standing, facing right. Photograph, no date. //hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b02101

After his return to America, Gershwin began working in the entertainment industry, composing the score for the movie Delicious; but he became frustrated with the system, and didn’t compose again for the movies until years later. Following this, Gershwin wrote two of his most famous staged works: Girl Crazy (1930) and Porgy and Bess (1935). Surprisingly, for us modern listeners, the former was much more popular at the time than the latter, spurring such hits as “Embraceable You” and “I Got Rhythm.” Porgy and Bess was considered a commercial failure and, because of this, Gershwin decided to try writing for the movies again.

He composed the music to the Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers movie Shall We Dance and began working on the score to The Goldwyn Follies. Yet, around this time, Gershwin’s behavior took an odd turn, as he had frequent mood swings, coordination issues, and other strange symptoms. It was not until he collapsed and fell into a coma on July 9, 1937 that doctors diagnosed him with a brain tumor. Sadly, his condition was too advanced, and Gershwin passed after surgery on July 11, 1937.

Although Gershwin died at a relatively young age, his precocious composition abilities left us with a treasure trove of classically American music. Keep reading below to see what materials we have by and about George Gershwin in the NLS Music Collection.

Braille

Original piano works

Concerto in F major for piano solo, bar over bar (BRM32359)
Impromptu in Two Keys, bar over bar (BRM35677)
“Melody” from Rhapsody in Blue, arr. for piano solo, bar by bar (BRM06432)
Preludes, for piano, bar over bar (BRM01002)
Prelude I in B-flat major, bar over bar (BRM36425)
Prelude III in G-flat major, bar over bar (BRM22656)
Rhapsody in Blue, arr. for piano solo, bar over bar (BRM07248)
Rhapsody in Blue, arr. for organ (BRM34797)
Rhapsody in Blue, arr. for two pianos, four hands, bar over bar, Piano 1, Piano 2 (BRM32133)
Three Preludes, section by section (BRM10006)

Piano arrangements of other works

An American in Paris: An Orchestral Tone Poem in Miniature, arr. for piano, bar by bar (BRM05571)
“Bess You Is My Woman Now” from Porgy and Bess, arr. for piano with chord symbols (BRM29046)
Gershwin Transcriptions for Piano: Song Hits Arranged by the Composer, bar over bar (BRM36099)
Musical Comedies, contains many Gershwin classics, arr. for piano with chord symbols (BRM29231)
“Summertime” from Porgy and Bess, arr. for piano solo, bar over bar (BRM22878)
Variations on “I Got Rhythm,” for two pianos, four hands (BRM24129)

Voice and Piano

“Bess You Is My Woman,” duet from Porgy and Bess (BRM36311)
“Embraceable You,” from Girl Crazy, for medium voice and piano (BRM13548)
“I Loves You Porgy” from Porgy and Bess (BRM28590)
“It Ain’t Necessarily So,” for voice in G minor and piano (BRM01902)
“Love Walked In,” from Goldwyn Follies (BRM35793)
“Somebody Loves Me,” for voice and piano (BRM08171)
“Summertime” from Porgy and Bess (BRM28250)
“Swanee,” for voice and piano (BRM35272)
Vocal Music Selections, vol. 1 (voice) and vol. 2 (piano) (BRM28697)

Choir

“Summertime” from Porgy and Bess, arr. for SAB choir with piano (BRM24212)
Porgy and Bess in Concert, for soloists, SATB choir, and piano (BRM28671)
“I Got Plenty O’ Nuttin’,” for male TTBB choir or quartet (BRM04496)

Other

Andante and Finale from Rhapsody in Blue, for any B-flat, E-flat, or bass clef instruments with piano (BRM28712)
Porgy and Bess, libretto (BRM34752)

Large Print

Gershwin, His Life and Music (LPM00501 – text only, no music)
Preludes for Piano (LPM00603)
Musical Comedies: contains many Gershwin classics arranged for piano (LPM00352)
Musical Comedies: contains many Gershwin classics; melody with chord symbols only (LPM00326)

Digital Talking Book

Appreciation

Girl Crazy: This Talking Book is a dramatization including songs by George Gershwin (DBM00282)
Copland, Gershwin, and Piston: A discussion about these three American composers (DBM00025)
The Narrated Life History of John Philip Sousa, George Gershwin, Aaron Copland, and Samuel Barber (DBM03407)
The World’s 50 Greatest Composers: George Gershwin (DBM01665)
Porgy and Bess: Chat with Ann Thompson (DBM01261)
George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue (DBM00891)
Gershwin: His Life and Music (DBM00709)
The Gershwin Years (DBM00614)

Instructional

Summertime (alto sax) by Bill Brown (DBM02731)
I Got Rhythm (piano) by Bill Brown (DBM01750)

New BARD Additions: August 2018

The hot and hazy dog days of summer are here, but the NLS Music Section has been working diligently to provide digital music books and scores for our patrons to access instantly. Take a look at the audiobooks and braille scores we have made available on NLS Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD) during the […]

Bernstein at 100

When I was in grade school, our chorus teacher let us hear a record called What Is Jazz (DBM00704), where tone color, blue notes, syncopation, and other aspects of jazz were described by a man named Leonard Bernstein (I assumed that he was a jazz piano player). By sixth grade I was listening to classical music […]

It’s Summertime!

Now that the hockey season is officially over, there is only one major sport that is capturing the nation’s attention: baseball! I find that baseball is synonymous with summer, as it’s been played in the summer months for generations. I’m sure I’m not alone recalling warm summer evenings spent gathered around the radio listening to […]

An American Classic: Irving Berlin

We’ve discussed show-tunes, Broadway, and the Great American Songbook on the blog before, but we have yet to talk about perhaps one of the most influential composers of American standards: Irving Berlin, who happens to celebrate his 129th birthday today. Along with penning a few Broadway scores, including the score for Annie Get Your Gun, […]

Over the Rainbow, and More: Part 2

This is a continuation of my survey of songs recently added to the LOC’s National Recording Registry, indicating where they may be found in the NLS music collection. (Note that Over the Rainbow was covered in last week’s blog.) Puttin’ on the Ritz Harry Richmond’s 1929 recording of this Irving Berlin song was added to […]

Good Friday

The following post is from John Hanson, former Section Head of the NLS Music Section. Tomorrow is Good Friday. It is a major Christian holiday marking Jesus’ crucifixion. “Holiday” seems a little too joyful a term given its origin.  But the stock market is closed. Wall Street has a holiday. For me, growing up, Good Friday was […]

Our Newest Books on (and off) BARD

Since it’s back-to-school time, many folks find themselves looking for new projects, new topics of interest, and new hobbies. I sincerely hope that many of you reading this are hoping to learn how to play music or your favorite song, improving your already extant musical skill, or maybe teaching yourself about some topic in music […]

Made in America

“Children must receive musical instruction naturally as food, and with as much pleasure as they derive from a ball game.” -Leonard Bernstein Today, we celebrate the birthday of Leonard Bernstein, one of the greatest American musicians of the twentieth century. Many of us know him as the celebrated conductor of the New York Philharmonic, the […]

George M!

“Over there! Over there!” “I’m a Yankee Doodle Dandy…” “You’re a grand old flag, you’re a high flying flag!” Do these songs seem familiar to you? Did you know that they were all written by the same composer, George M. Cohan? George M. Cohan (he’s usually referred to by his full name, middle initial and […]