Behind the Scenes: Reflecting on a Career While Continuing to Explore the Collections

The following is an interview with Barbara Orbach Natanson, former Head of the Prints & Photographs Reading Room.

Melissa: Can you tell us about your background, and what roles you played at the Library of Congress before you retired this past December?

Shows interviewee Vera McKee at left and fieldworker Barbara Orbach at right holding recording equipment.

McKee Ranch, hay meadows, irrigation, Silverthorne, Colorado. Photo by Howard W. Marshall, 1980. // Barbara Orbach shown at right, with Vera McKee, holding recording equipment.

Barbara: I first came to the Library of Congress in 1980 to do an internship in the Archive of Folk Song and got the opportunity to continue with some fieldwork in Colorado for the American Folklife Center. Both provided good grounding for completing Master’s degrees in Folklore and in Library Science at UCLA. Upon graduation, I was lucky to land a spot in the Library’s intern program that, at the time, brought together library school graduates with more seasoned LC staff for several months’ worth of discussions and rotations learning about all of the functions of the Library. I was equally lucky that P&P hired me as a cataloger at the conclusion of the program. Wanting to inform my cataloging with a better understanding of how researchers look for images, I became a researcher myself while taking classes at the University of Maryland, deepening my understanding of the collections and acquiring a Ph.D. in American Studies along the way.

I’m grateful that, in 37 years in P&P, I got an opportunity to experience many aspects of the division’s work successively as a cataloger, a reference librarian, a specialist in reference automation, and then as the head of the reference section. In that latter role and while simultaneously acting as head of the curatorial section, I got to learn from and alongside a team of capable and creative colleagues while supporting reference services. There’s nothing more satisfying when answering researchers’ questions than heading down an informational byway that expands knowledge of the collections or the experiences they document. I relished our shared commitment to acquainting members of the public with P&P’s vast wealth of images both by serving collections in the reading room and through an ever-expanding array of outreach activities.

Melissa: What significant changes in P&P have you observed during your career?

Barbara Orbach working on the videodisc project. Photo by Prints & Photographs Division staff, 1986.

Barbara Orbach working on the videodisc project. Photo by Prints & Photographs Division staff, 1986.

Barbara: I arrived in the division just as technology and staff members’ spirit of innovation was transforming image access. When I started, we were actively filing cards into the card catalogs and were wrangling dedicated word processing machines to print out catalog cards on 3×5 inch card stock. Not long after I arrived, rumor of computers that could fit onto the top of a desk started to come true, and – even better for those of us working with pictures – a computer that could search descriptions and bring up the associated image in our One Box computer/videodisc system.

When I moved from cataloging to reference, still limited in how readily we could show off-site researchers what P&P has in its collections, my reference colleagues and I used to joke that we should offer a show on one of the television shopping networks where we could take requests for pictures and hold them up (“Do you like this Currier & Ives print?”). Now researchers everywhere benefit from wonderful digital scans and online searching of descriptions, and we can discuss the collections with individuals and groups virtually. I suspect the expansion in the ways we are able to communicate about images to people near and far has added to the general growth in visual awareness and communication in our image-filled culture.

One thing that never changed in all my years at the Library, however, is how much I (and, by extension, Library users) benefitted from the knowledge of colleagues all over the organization, whether in optimizing online searching and image access, untangling image rights, connecting collections served in different reading rooms, and many other types of support that makes the daily work of the Library possible.

Melissa: What are some collections that are near and dear to you that you’ve worked with over the years?

Barbara: While some may liken choosing among P&P’s thousands of collections to the impossible task of choosing a favorite child, I’d say it’s a little more like picking favorites among genres of music. I like so many collections for the different insights they offer. But among the standouts:

Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information/Office of Emergency Management Collection

I love this collection for the glimpses it gives us of everyday life in America during the 1930s and 1940s. While hardly all candid photographs, they show us how people dressed, ate, played, worked, and worshipped as well as what the interiors of their homes and workplaces looked like. Exploring the context for some of the particular picture stories the photographers made in their work for the government led me to some of my most complex and fascinating research projects. And I can’t leave out the fact that the photographs were what brought one particular researcher to P&P for some extended dissertation research examining Black representation in the collection. Meeting for the first time at the file cabinets that hold the photographs, we married a few years later.

Untitled photo, possibly related to: Washington, D.C. Jewal Mazique [i.e. Jewel], worker at the Library of Congress, getting a late snack. Photo by John Collier, Jr., 1942. //

Untitled photo, possibly related to: Washington, D.C. Jewal Mazique [i.e. Jewel], worker at the Library of Congress, getting a late snack. Photo by John Collier, Jr., 1942. // One of my favorite research projects was learning more about the context behind the “day in the life” photographs of Jewel Mazique, a Library of Congress staff member in the early 1940s. Government documents filled in some blanks, but the true gift was the opportunity to ask Mrs. Mazique herself about her recollections from the period.

George Grantham Bain Collection

I love exploring the Bain News Service photographs (known when we share them on Flickr as “News of the 1910s”) for a sense of who and what the news presented to viewers of an earlier era. We also have the benefit of hindsight, and in sharing the photos in Flickr, I’ve been introduced to fascinating individuals I might never have otherwise met. Sometimes the backstories commenters have contributed draw me in by the strange, often sad twists of fate so many of our forebears experienced.

Kate Barnard by Bain News Service. Between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. //

Kate Barnard by Bain News Service. Between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. // See the comments about this photo in Flickr to learn about Kate Barnard’s many accomplishments.

And I never cease to thrill at the extreme entertainments of decades past!

Auto polo. Photo by Bain News Service, between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. //

Auto polo. Photo by Bain News Service, between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. // See Flickr entry.

National Child Labor Committee Photographs

Though often hard to look at, particularly as a parent, I so appreciate this collection for the visual literacy lessons it offers. Photographs taken with a focused purpose to expose the threats posed by child labor, the often extensive captions are among the most detailed I have seen, including names, ages, addresses, pay rates and hours. The captions have offered good material for recent researchers to discover inaccuracies in what Lewis Hine or his witnesses recorded, but also to trigger explorations into the lives the children lived. And while grim working and living conditions may predominate, I relish the instances where children’s playfulness comes through as well.

Flash light photo of John Sousa, his mother and some brothers and sisters. John is sitting. Crowded, dirty home. Location: New Bedford, Massachusetts. Photo by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1912.//

Flash light photo of John Sousa, his mother and some brothers and sisters. John is sitting. Crowded, dirty home. Location: New Bedford, Massachusetts. Photo by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1912.//

Popular Graphic Arts

I love the nineteenth-century prints for the ways in which they convey values and ideals presented to the public in that era. To the extent that the prints were used sometimes as advertising and sometimes as a teaching tool, they reflect what publishers and manufacturers marketed as desirable in a changing culture.

Prang's aids for object teaching--The kitchen . Lithograph by L. Prang & Co., 1874. //

Prang’s aids for object teaching–The kitchen . Lithograph by L. Prang & Co., 1874. // I’ve always appreciated how sometimes a group of images can add up to more than the sum of the parts, as in this series of “aids for object teaching.”

Japanese Fine Prints

For pure aesthetic pleasure, I often turn to this collection — it’s the source of many of my electronic greeting cards. The prints are masterful in conveying mood and in providing arresting details.

Jumoku ni suzu. Woodcut between 1900 and 1915. //

Jumoku ni suzu. Woodcut between 1900 and 1915. //

Melissa: We are so grateful that you offered to volunteer and help us meet some of our goals this year. Can you describe some of the projects you are working on? 

Barbara: My main focus is in converting some of P&P’s web-based collection guides to the new research guides platform. It’s a particular treat to get to spend time revisiting the collections, getting to know them more thoroughly, and making connections among them. As you can tell, good fortune graced my entire career at the Library, and I’m indeed lucky to get to continue to collaborate with my wonderful former colleagues and to enjoy and share the collections, even in retirement.

Learn More:


  1. Carl Fleischhauer
    April 28, 2022 at 8:22 am

    Thank you for this wonderful interview with Barbara. Like many others at the Library (I too am retired now), I often benefited from Barbara’s guidance and support in my work. She exemplifies the immense value provided by the many subject experts who work at the Library. And, as the interview demonstrates, reveals that although these experts are in a sense specialized, their success depends upon broad knowledge of human history and culture. Barbara is one of the best, much appreciated by colleagues and researchers. And as a former worker in the American Folklilfe Center at the Library, it is fun to see that the lead photograph in this blog came not from P&P collection but rather from one of the AFC online offerings. Best wishes to Barbara in her next endeavors!

  2. Danna Bell
    April 28, 2022 at 1:09 pm

    Thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience with your colleagues and the teachers that we have worked with. You have been amazing and we’ll miss working with you and learning from you.

  3. Barbara Orbach Natanson
    April 29, 2022 at 1:59 pm

    Thank you so much, Carl and Danna, for your kind words. You are, of course, among those very knowledgeable colleagues who consistently and generously assisted me, other librarians and archivists, and members of the public. As a matter of fact, without Carl there to assemble the needed equipment and to instruct me in how to use it, I might not have been standing in that field holding a microphone and learning about a way of life lightyears away from my own. What a lot of memories flooded back when I explored the American Folklife Center’s online guide, “American Folklife Center Collections: Colorado” (//!

    The work both of you have done to expand access to the collections and to extend understanding of them is a lasting legacy for the Library and its users.

  4. lentigogirl
    May 2, 2022 at 12:30 pm

    Anyone reading this interview will understand why Barbara is so deeply missed – and also her enormous legacy.

Add a Comment

This blog is governed by the general rules of respectful civil discourse. You are fully responsible for everything that you post. The content of all comments is released into the public domain unless clearly stated otherwise. The Library of Congress does not control the content posted. Nevertheless, the Library of Congress may monitor any user-generated content as it chooses and reserves the right to remove content for any reason whatever, without consent. Gratuitous links to sites are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments. We further reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to remove a user's privilege to post content on the Library site. Read our Comment and Posting Policy.

Required fields are indicated with an * asterisk.