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Small dishes of three orange- to red- hued spices, paint patches on paper, a spray of red leaves, and a cluster of red and brown fuzz-covered berries on a branch.

From left to right: saffron threads, annatto seeds, sumac powder, and some experimental colorant patches made from them following 16th-18th C. treatises. Above, sprays of staghorn sumac leaves and seeds. Credit: Cindy Connelly Ryan.