This is a guest post by Sarah Haro. Sarah is working with the education team at the Library of Congress as part of the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Internship Program.
The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, changed the lives of many Americans. On the homefront, one of the most dramatic changes was the transformation of the lives of Japanese Americans.
As we approach the 71st anniversary of this historic event, it is inevitable to think about the past, to ask questions, and to discuss what happened that day. While it’s easy to look up summaries explaining the ordeal or read about how many ships were sunk and people murdered, it’s also important to take a moment to consider what those living at the time experienced.
To help learn about these experiences, the Library of Congress offers a selection of primary sources representing the events.
The blog entry Pearl Harbor: The Nation’s Immediate Response, by Danna Bell-Russel, highlights a collection of interviews done by the Radio Research Project throughout the country. By listening to the opinions and concerns of people from around the United States, we can travel back to the 1940s and experience what the attack meant and what some of the consequences were.
To learn about the experiences of the Japanese-Americans at the time, teachers can make use of the collection: Ansel Adams’s Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar. As an avid photographer of the Sierra Nevada, “[Adams’] purpose for his work was to show how these people, suffering under a great injustice, and loss of property, businesses and professions, had overcome the sense of defeat and dispair [sic] by building for themselves a vital community in an arid (but magnificent) environment…” Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California’s Owens Valley, the Manzanar Relocation Center was one of many internment camps that held thousands of Japanese-Americans in custody after the attack. The photographs capture the daily lives of Japanese-Americans as they persevered despite great changes.
Learning about the experiences of the American people during this time of crisis is crucial to understand the event. From the collection of interviews by the Radio Research Project and the collection of photographs by Ansel Adams, students can discover for themselves how this event affected the course of history.
- Analyze the people in the photographs. Ask about their age, background, and occupations. What else can you learn from examining this image? Refer to the Teacher’s Guide: Analyzing Photographs and Prints for more questions.
- Students can make predictions about what will happen one hour after the scene shown in a picture, such as Burning leaves, Autumn dawn, and explain the reasoning behind their predictions.
- Read and analyze the text in the photographs. For example, discuss how the message in Detail of work-offer board conveys the culture of the camp.
- Compare and contrast prints from two or more photographers. For example, students can look at the photograph I am an American by Dorothea Lange and Pictures and mementoes by Ansel Adams.
- Students can also describe what they see and discuss the physical environment to understand the photographer’s purpose. Pay attention to the mountains and the land. How does the environment affect the lives of the internees? What clues are in the images, such as Farm, farm workers, Mt. Williamson in background?
For more photographs by Ansel Adams and others, check out the Japanese American Internment primary source set.
Browse through the book Born Free and Equal by Ansel Adams to learn more about the photographs in the collection and read about the history and life in the Manzanar Internment Camp.