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Devil in the Details: Examining Visual Material from the Civil War

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This post is by Nina Silvia Iskandarsjach, the Summer 2021 Liljenquist Fellow at the Library of Congress.

My first task as an intern for the Library of Congress was to read Ron Field’s book Silent Witness and to update the Library’s online catalog based on Field’s research. This involved finding every image attributed to the Library of Congress and adding or modifying information on those images in the Library’s catalog. 

Some photographs were simple to find. I could search the Library’s catalog by photographer or location to quickly find my match.

I found the image of this unidentified soldier because its location, Benton Barracks, was identified in both Field’s book and the Library’s catalog.

Image of African American Civil War soldier in uniform holding guns
Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with a Austrian Lorenz rifle-musket and Remington revolver in front of painted backdrop showing weapons and American flag at Benton Barracks, Saint Louis, Missouri. Enoch Long

Civilians crowed in boxcars fleeing Atlanta at the end of the Civil War
Atlanta, Ga. Civilians crowded on tops of boxcars at railroad depot as soldiers gather around an S.D. Goodale & Sons stereoscopic viewer next to office of the Daily Intelligencer newspaper. George N. Bernard, 1864

However, photographs with unidentified soldiers, misidentified photographers, or vague descriptors are difficult to locate within the wealth of digitized images. Thus, I quickly learned that when it comes to research, the devil lies in the details.

For harder to identify photographs, like the one on this page from Atlanta, I learned to observe closely for details that might indicate its identity.

After search results using the terms “railroad,” “Atlanta,” and “Barnard” (photographer) were fruitless, I examined this photograph more closely, noting a boxcar in the background and soldiers huddling in the center. I finally discovered this image in the Library catalog, titled “Atlanta, Ga. Soldiers on boxcars at railroad depot.” With a closer look, however, you can see that the people piled on top of the boxcars are not actually soldiers, but civilians. According to Field, they are “panicked civilian passengers” attempting to flee Atlanta following Sherman’s capture of the city. Additionally, at the center of the photograph, you can see a group of soldiers huddled around a stereoscopic camera. Now the Library’s online catalog has been updated to say, “Atlanta, Ga. Civilians crowded on tops of boxcars at railroad depot as soldiers gather around an S.D. Goodale & Sons stereoscopic viewer.”

As a student of history, I understand how intimidating historical research can feel. It may seem like everything important  is already discovered, especially when it comes to prominent historical events like the Civil War. But the truth is, there is so much of history that has yet to be uncovered.

This image of Confederate General Robert E. Lee was captured just 11 days after his surrender at the Appomattox Court House.

Image of Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee.

Detail of image of Robert E. Lee showing the word "devil".
Detail of image of Robert E. Lee showing where the word ‘devil” has been carved in the brick.

On the surface, it depicts a surprisingly cordial end to one of the bloodiest wars in American history. But there’s more to this photograph than what initially meets the eye. On the left side of the image, faintly visible on a brick adjacent to the doorknob, the word “devil” is etched into the house of Robert E. Lee.

This tiny detail reveals a history of post-war tension that is not immediately evident and foreshadows a messy post-war reality. The richness of history does not lie in simple facts or commonly known truths. In history, the devil really does lie in the details.

Next Steps:

  • Present students with Civil War images chosen from this blog post. Additional images can be found in the Library of Congress online collections of Civil War photographs. (Also check out the related images at the bottom of each item page!)
  • Give students ample time to closely examine images. Each student or group of students should make several observations from their close examination.
  • As a whole class, compile observations and discuss. Ask students: What new information was discovered after the close examination? Was there anything consequential discovered that wasn’t noticeable at first glance?

Please leave a comment about what images your students found compelling, and what they discovered.


  1. I very much appreciate your selection and publication of such images from time to time, images that can rectify the overwhelming fictionality of popular media, media which have little motivation to represent truth rather than purchase of goods as well as mouse clicks.
    To use well and effectively such a treasury of information as the LC holds, oversees, and protects id a priceless public service
    Keep doing what you do, and not only America, but the entire world will benefit from your holdings of such images and honest information about them.
    Tom Holbrook

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