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United Nations Day – A Time to Reflect on the Potential Role of the International Court of Justice

This is a guest post by Elizabeth Boomer, an international law consultant in the Global Legal Research Directorate. Elizabeth has previously written for In Custodia Legis on Technology & the Law of Corporate Responsibility – The Impact of Blockchain, and the 30th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

ICJ Holds Public Hearings on Equatorial Guinea v. France Case, (Feb. 17, 2020), by UN/Frank van Beek.

Tomorrow, October 24, is United Nations Day (UN Day), which marks the 75th anniversary of the creation of the United Nations. The focus of UN Day 2020 is “The future we want, the United Nations we need: reaffirming our collective commitment to multilateralism,” which is particularly pertinent given the scope of collective action challenges confronting the multilateral system today. These include how international law can be used to respond to the legal challenges presented by COVID-19, to resolve ongoing trade wars, to manage migration flows, or to address climate change (which was the theme of UN Day 2019). While these challenges may be most commonly handled through diplomacy or advocacy, one might wonder what international law tools and institutions the UN has as part of its arsenal to contribute to the future we want.

In this post, I want to highlight the potential of the advisory opinion function of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), as a main organ of the UN. Article 33 of the United Nations Charter established the ICJ in 1945, and its governing statute was annexed to the UN Charter in 1945. As the ICJ notes, “Despite having no binding force, the Court’s advisory opinions nevertheless carry great legal weight and moral authority. They are often an instrument of preventive diplomacy and help to keep the peace. In their own way, advisory opinions also contribute to the clarification and development of international law and thereby to the strengthening of peaceful relations between States.”

While the idea of creating an international court to settle disputes between states and to offer advisory opinions may seem mostly uncontroversial now, an international court was not an obvious choice for an international legal institution in the early 1940s. Prior to the establishment of the ICJ as a principle organ of the UN, mediation and arbitration were the much more common methods for the pacific settlement of disputes between states. Among its predecessors, only the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) functioned as an international court in a non-ad hoc manner, as opposed to an arbitral tribunal. These characteristics allowed the PCIJ to have the competency to not only settle specific disputes between parties, but also to provide advisory opinions on any question referred to it by the Council or Assembly of the League of Nations. However, the PCIJ was short lived, only operating and delivering judgments for 19 years from 1921 to 1940. Thus, the creation of a new international court capable of giving advisory opinions was not a foregone conclusion.

However in the end, the committee charged with drafting the statute of the new international court decided to base it primarily on the statute of the PCIJ – many of the first judges of the ICJ were former judges of the PCIJ. One important characteristic the ICJ carried over from the PCIJ is that the court’s jurisdiction is not compulsory (an exploration of the issues of state consent and compulsory jurisdiction can be found here).

To date, the ICJ has delivered 133 judgments in contentious disputes between states and 28 advisory opinions. Currently, 15 contentious cases are pending before the court. While contentious cases have represented the majority of proceedings at the ICJ in recent years, one might wonder if the ICJ’s advisory proceedings could offer some clarity at the international level on the array of international legal issues that the COVID-19 pandemic has either caused or exacerbated? Per article 65 of the Statute of the ICJ, “the Court may give an advisory opinion on any legal question at the request of whatever body may be authorized by or in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations to make such a request”. Furthermore, article 96 of the UN Charter provides that, in addition to the UN General Assembly and the Security Council, other UN organs and specialized agencies may request advisory opinions on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities, if authorized by the General Assembly.

Some relevant international legal issues the ICJ may be asked to clarify are: (i) what are the international obligations of states during a pandemic, and when do these obligations arise; (ii) the ways that states should balance overlapping, and sometimes contradictory, international human rights obligations, such as national security and protection of public health vs. freedoms of expression, association, or privacy during a pandemic, or (iii) what defenses to state responsibility could be invoked due to the pandemic?

While it remains to be seen if the General Assembly, Security Council, or other UN organs and specialized agencies will request an advisory opinion from the ICJ on any of these or other legal issues mentioned, it is clear that the commitment to multilateralism through the peaceful settlement of disputes and the hope to strengthen peaceful relations between states remains a priority 75 years later.

United States Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Resources

This is a guest post by Louis Myers, the Law Library’s Librarian-in-Residence. Recent economic and geopolitical events have caused an increase in searches and requests for information about cryptocurrency regulation and legislation. The Law Library of Congress has compiled and maintained reports with information and resources on cryptocurrency and block chain for international jurisdictions, including Regulation […]

A Recording of the 2020 Constitution and Citizenship Day Lecture with Michael J. Murphy is Now Available

On September 17, 2020, Michael J. Murphy, a historical publications specialist with the Office of the Historian for the United States House of Representatives, provided a lecture for the Constitution and Citizenship Day celebration titled, “The Bulwark of Freedom”: African-American Members of Congress and the Constitution During Reconstruction.” Michael discussed the lives of the first […]

Congress.gov: New, Tip, and Top for October 2020

Last month, Robert and Margaret each shared information about the committee transcripts added to Congress.gov in the first and second set of enhancements respectively. Since Margaret’s post, we have added transcripts for the 107th, 108th, and 109th Congresses bringing the total up to ten Congresses for this new collection. With this month’s release, we have added […]

70th Anniversary of the German Federal Court of Justice

This month, the German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH)—Germany’s supreme court for civil and criminal cases—is celebrating its 70th anniversary. It was established on October 1, 1950, and immediately started hearing cases as it took over the case files from the German Supreme Court for the British Zone (Oberster Gerichtshof für die Britische Zone, […]

National Disability Employment Awareness Month and White Cane Awareness Day

This month, the Law Library is proud to celebrate the 75th anniversary of National Disability Employment Awareness Month. We previously announced its connection to the 30th anniversary of the ADA by showing ways in which the Library of Congress focuses on improving accessibility to our collections. Through the Office of Disability Employment Policy (part of […]

An Interview with Louis Myers, Librarian-in-Residence at the Law Library of Congress

Today’s interview is with Louis Myers, the current Librarian-in-Residence at the Law Library of Congress. Louis has recently authored blog posts for In Custodia Legis, including Research Guides in Focus – Municipal Codes: A Beginner’s Guide and Research Guides in Focus – Neighbor Law: A Beginner’s Guide. Describe your background. I am originally from Akron, […]

New Foreign Legal Gazette Collection Database

The Law Library of Congress has developed a guide to our collection of foreign legal gazettes. Gazettes are generally the first place that a ruling body will publish its laws, making them an invaluable resource for foreign legal research. The Law Library has been collecting foreign legal gazettes since the mid-19th century. We are one of […]